Wednesday, 30 May 2012

Perbedaan Gymnospermae dan Angiospermae


Penggolongan Spermatophyta : Gymnospermae dan Angiospermae

Berdasarkan kondisi bijinya, Spermatophyta digolongkan menjadi
tumbuhan berbiji terbuka (Gymnospermae) dan tumbuhan berbiji
tertutup (Angiospermae)

1) Gymnospermae
Ciri morfologi tumbuhan ini adalah berakar tunggang, daun sempit,
tebal dan kaku, biji terdapat dalam daun buah (makrosporofil) dan
serbuk sari terdapat dalam bagian yang lain (mikrosporofil), daun
buah penghasil dan badan penghasil serbuk sari terpisah dan masingmasing
disebut dengan strobillus.
Ciri-ciri anatominya memiliki akar dan batang yang berkambium,
akar mempunyai kaliptra, batang tua dan batang muda tidak
mempunyai floeterma atau sarung tepung, yaitu endodermis yang
mengandung zat tepung. Pembuahan tunggal dan selang waktu
antara penyerbukan dengan pembuahan relatif lama. Berkas
pembuluh angkut belum berfungsi secara sempurna berupa trakeid.
Yang termasuk golongan ini adalah Cycas rumphii (pakis haji),
Ginko opsida (ginko).

metagenesis gymnospermae siklus hidup http://info-gudangilmu.blogspot.com/
2) Angiospermae
Tanaman angiospermae mempunyai ciri-ciri morfologi sebagai
berikut mempunyai bunga yang sesungguhnya, bentuk daun pipih
dan lebar dengan susunan daun yang bervariasi, bakal biji tidak
tampak terlindung dalam daun buah atau putik, terjadi pembuahan
ganda, pembentukan embrio dan endosperm berlangsung dalam
waktu yang hampir bersamaan.
Angiospermae dibedakan menjadi dua kelas berdasarkan keping
biji (kotiledon), adalah sebagai berikut.

a) Monokotiledon, yaitu tumbuhan yang mempunyai keping biji
tunggal. Contohnya kelapa (Cocos nucifera), melinjo (Gnetum
gnemon).

b) Dikotiledon, yaitu tumbuhan yang mempunyai keping biji dua.
Contohnya petai (Parkia speciosa), cabe rawit (Capsicum
frustescens).

Tabel perbedaan morfologi dan anatomi monokotiledon dengan
dikotiledon.

monokotil dikotil info-gudangilmu.blogspot.com
sumber: Biologi BSE kelas X

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